Lake Erie Facts
Length : 241 miles
Breadth: 57 miles
Entire Coast: 871 miles
Ohio's Coast: 312 miles
Public Access Miles: ~55 miles
Average Depth: 62 feet
Maximum Depth: 210 feet
Volume: 127 trillion gallons
Surface Area: 9,910 sq. mi.
Drainage Area: 30,140 sq. mi.
Retention Time: 2.6 years
Outlets: Niagara River and Welland Canal
Go to Coastal Counties page for more detalied facts on each counties' coast.
History of Ohio's Coast
In recognition of the Lake Erie region's value and the pressures that threaten its resources, the Ohio General Assembly passed the Ohio Coastal Management Law in 1988. This law authorized the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) to act as lead agency in developing and implementing a comprehensive Coastal Management Program (OCMP).
The history of coastal management in Ohio can be traced back much farther. Lake Erie's dynamic history is featured below.
Pre-European | Pre-Statehood | Early Statehood | Late 19th Century | Turn of the Century | Post World War II | Environmental Era | New Millennium | Coastal Historical Societies and Markers
Lake Erie Post-Glacial A.D. Timeline
1200-1600 - The prehistoric, Native-American drawings on Inscription Rock, located on Kelleys Island's southern shore, are believed to be created.
1669 - French explorer Louis Joliet is the first European to discover Lake Erie; Erie was the last of the Great Lakes to be discovered.
1787 - The Northwest Ordinance which is considered to be one of the most significant achievements of the Congress of the Confederation is passed. The Ordinance puts the world on notice not only that the land north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi will be settled but that it will eventually become part of the United States. Previously, development had temporarily been forbidden here.
1796 - General Moses Cleaveland completes the first survey of Cleveland and the city is established as the first settlement in the Connecticut Western Reserve.
1797 - Charles Parker, a surveyor with the Connecticut Land Company, builds a cabin on a marsh paving the way for other pioneers to establish this new land which will become the city of Mentor.
1799 - The city of Conneaut is located on an old Native American trail, also used by early pioneers heading westward. Conneaut, on Pennsylvania’s border, is Ohio’s northern-most city.
1803 - Ohio becomes the 17th state. (See also: Ohio History Central Quick Facts)
– The city of Ashtabula
is founded along the "river of many fish" (the Ashtabula River).
- The city of Huron
is founded by Jean Baptiste Flammond. The city along the Huron River is incorporated in 1835.
- The city of Lorain
is founded at the mouth of the Black River.
- The city of Vermilion
is founded and later incorporated in 1838.
- Marblehead Village
is founded. Due to the abundant amounts of limestone quarried nearby, the village was once called Plasterbed.
- John Garrison and his family are credited with founding present-day Sandusky
where the Wyandot Indians had an encampment as early as 1740. In 1816, Zalmon Wildman conferred upon the place the name Sandusky City. The city was incorporated in 1824.
- Fairport Harbor
is founded. Originally called Grandon, a name derived from the Grand River, the town is incorporated by Ohio's third governor, Samuel Huntington, in 1836.
- The Battle of Lake Erie is fought between nine United States Navy vessels commanded by Oliver Hazard Perry
and a fleet of six British warships. Located in Lake Erie waters northwest of Put-in-Bay, the battle was resolutely won by the outnumbered Americans in three hours. The battle ultimately secured control of Lake Erie and the Northwest Territory for the Americans during the War of 1812
. (Battle of Lake Erie Websites: U.S. Senate | National Park Service | Ohio History Central | Images )
- Fort Meigs in Perrysburg
is built along the Maumee River
to defend Ohio against British attack. Fort Meigs stood as the largest wooden fortification in North America. It has since been rebuilt and the site is a state memorial and National Historic Landmark. (Fort Meigs websites: Ohio Historical Society | Ohio History Central | Fort Meigs.org )
- The Marblehead Lighthouse
in Marblehead is constructed. It stands as the oldest Great Lakes lighthouse in continuous operation.
- The primitive "corduroy" planked road linking Fremont
is completed. The Maumee and Western Reserve Road, as it was known, is the first road constructed through the former Great Black Swamp
. The newly laid corridor frequently submerged into the muddy ground due to preexisting drainage conditions and damming effects caused by road placement. The 31-mile throughway, dubbed America’s worst, takes weeks to travel. In 1938, it is paved with gravel and today the once treacherous course serves as part of U.S. Highway 20
, the longest road in the United States.
-To straighten the shipping channel, the mouth of the Cuyahoga River is repositioned east creating Whiskey Island in Cleveland. The former mouth is filled in the 1920s. (See: Friends of the Crooked River
| Cuyahoga River RAP)
- The town of Port Clinton
on the Portage River is platted.
1832 - The completion of the Ohio & Erie Canal
connects Lake Erie with the Ohio River
, via Cleveland
. Use of the canal peaks in the 1840s. Construction and expansion of the railroad
network into Ohio in the 1870s causes a steady decline in canal transport. A statewide flood in 1913
destroys a majority of the canal infrastructure and the manmade waterways never recover. (See also: Miami and Erie Canal)
is founded when the neighboring and competing towns of Port Lawrence
agree to set aside their differences and unite to take advantage of a proposed canal to bypass rapids on the Maumee River.
- The Toledo War
, also known as the Ohio-Michigan War, the Battle of Phillip’s Corners, the Ohio-Michigan Boundary War
and the Michigan-Ohio War, is fought to settle the boundary between the state of Ohio and the Michigan Territory. The dispute centers over a 468 square mile strip of land including what is now the city of Toledo. Ohio had drawn counties and set up county governments in the strip which Michigan also claims. The governors of both the state and territory send militia forces to the area, but the Strip is covered with dense arborvitae swamps (part of the "Great Black Swamp"). The two militias get lost for weeks and never actually find each other, though at one point a Michigan deputy is stabbed while arresting an Ohio man in a tavern. No one else is seriously injured. The U.S. Congress agrees to grant Michigan statehood in 1836, but only if it relinquishes its claim to the disputed tract. In exchange, Michigan is granted the western two-thirds of the Upper Peninsula. While the "war" ended on Dec.14, 1836, the boundary between Ohio and Michigan in Lake Erie is not finally resolved until a U.S. Supreme Court ruling in 1973.
Late 19th Century
- Confederate captives are first imprisoned on Johnson’s Island
. More than 15,000 Confederate prisoners of war
are incarcerated at the 40-acre island site near the mouth of Sandusky Bay through 1865. (See also: Ohio Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy
- Lands are set aside in Cleveland to be developed as recreation areas. In 1977, the city of Cleveland leases its four lakefront parks to the state of Ohio. The four parks become Cleveland Lakefront State Park
in 1978. In 1982, the Euclid Beach area, a former amusement park, is added to the state park property. The Villa Angela area consists of two separate land purchases. The first 30 acres is bought by the city of Cleveland and turned over to the state in 1984. ODNR and the Cleveland Public Library purchase the remaining 13 acres in May 1991. While each area appears to be a separate park, they are administered through a single park office located at Gordon Park.
- The spanning white sand beach along Cedar Point’s
northern shore attracts its first paying guests. Bathers are transported to and from the mainland aboard Sandusky entrepreneur Louis Zistel’s side-wheel steamer, the Young Reindeer. Upon arrival, men and women bathe in the lake, modestly separated by a screen. (See also: Ohio History Central Cedar Point site)
- Charles Brush
invents the arc lamp. In 1879, Public Square is illuminated by Brush’s lights boasting Cleveland as the first city to use the invention. Other worldly cities in Europe and the United States soon follow.
- The Lake Erie Island region produces more than one-third of Ohio’s total grape yield and almost one-half of its wine product. Due to the stabilizing effect of Lake Erie, the Lake Erie Islands have a longer frost-free period than any other area in Ohio. This unique climate characteristic allows for ample grape agriculture. (See: Ohio Grape Industries, OSU Extension Ohio Grape Web)
- The settlement known as East Rockport of Rockport Township is incorporated and becomes known as the hamlet of Lakewood
. In 1911, Lakewood becomes a city.
- Cedar Point
, today known worldwide for a diverse collection of record breaking roller coasters, builds its first roller coaster, the primitive 25-foot tall, 10 mile per hour, Switchback Railway.
- The Lake Shore Electric Railway
connects Cleveland and Lorain.
- The first working model of the Hulett Automatic Ore Unloader
is constructed at Conneaut Harbor in Conneaut
. The massive machine developed by George H. Hulett
, revolutionized iron ore
shipping in the state. The design permitted quick cargo unloading times, enhanced quantities and increased efficiency. Additional machines are built in Ashtabula, Cleveland, Huron, Lorain and Toledo and are staples of Lake Erie shipping until 1992.
Turn of the Century
1907 - Dr. Lee DeForest makes the first ship-to-shore radio transmission at Put-in-Bay. DeForest transmits the annual I-LYA (Inter-Lake Yachting Association) Regatta race results. (See: Ohio Historic Marker site)
1909 - The Boundary Waters Treaty is signed by the United States and Canada. Recognizing that degradation of the Great Lakes by any state, province or nation can have widespread effects upon the lakes and coastal residents, the Treaty provides the principles and mechanisms to help resolve disputes and to prevent future ones, primarily those concerning water quantity and water quality along the boundary between Canada and the United States. The Treaty leads to the establishment of the International Joint Commission (IJC).
1910 - Aviator Glenn Curtiss flies 65 miles across Lake Erie from Euclid Beach Amusement Park in Cleveland to Cedar Point Amusement Park in Sandusky, setting a world record for the longest flight over water. (See: Glenn H. Curtiss Museum)
1912 - The township of Avon Lake is created from Avon Township. Rapid growth induced by the railroad leads to the formation of Avon Lake. In 1917 the township is incorporated and in 1960 Avon Lake becomes a city.
1915 - Construction of the 352-foot tall Perry’s Victory and International Peace Memorial, which began in 1912, is complete. The memorial, located on Put-in-Bay’s South Bass Island, commemorates Oliver Hazard Perry’s “Battle of Lake Erie” victory over the British in 1813.
1917 - Passage of the Flemming Act marks the first time coastal policies regarding the Lake Erie Public Trust are written in Ohio law. The Act enables the state and local governments to have better oversight to encourage the wise use of Lake Erie. Local communities began issuing Submerged Land Leases to littoral owners wishing to build in Lake Erie. (See: Ohio Revised Code Section 1506)
1919 - The Hotel Victory on South Bass Island, America’s largest hotel at the time, burns to the ground. The 625-guestroom hotel featured the first co-ed swimming pool. The remnants of the pool are still visible at South Bass Island State Park.
1924 - Ohio's deadliest tornado, claiming 85 lives, hits the cities of Sandusky and Lorain. According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, in 2008 it ranks historically as the 22nd most deadly tornado to date in the United States.
1925 - The largest bald eagle nest ever recorded topples to the ground in Vermilion after a storm. The two-ton, 35-year-old nest is measured at 8.5 feet in width and 12 feet in height.
1925 - The bascule-style Ashtabula Harbor Lift Bridge (Bridge Street, State Route 531) opens in Ashtabula. The unique bridge is the only one of its kind in Ohio, and one of just five in the entire country.
1929 - Electricity is brought to South Bass Island for the first time via underwater cables from Catawba.
1935 - The Beach Erosion Board is created in the Department of Public Works to regulate the removal of minerals from the bed of Lake Erie. The Department of Public Works is later assumed by the Department of Administrative Services.
1940 - The Charles Berry Bascule Bridge (Erie Avenue, U.S. Highway 6) is built over the Black River in Lorain. To this day, it is esteemed as the largest lift bridge in the United States and second largest in the world.
1942 - Two seiche-related waves unexpectedly batter the Ohio shore between Bay Village and Conneaut. Madison-on-the-Lake receives the brunt of the waves. The first wave ranges between 4 and 20 feet, and the second, following 15 minutes later, is 6 to 8 feet high. The phenomenon kills seven people. (See example of seiche event from November 12-13, 2003)
Post World War II
1945 - Fairport Harbor Maritime Museum opens in the attached keeper's quarters of the Old Fairport Main Light which was built in 1825 and targeted for demolition a century later. The museum is the first Great Lakes marine museum in the United States.
1947 - East Harbor State Park opens.
1948 - After an Ohio Supreme Court ruling, the state of Ohio assumes responsibility for issuing Submerged Land Leases for littoral owners wishing to build structures in Lake Erie.
1951 - A total of 650 acres, which includes a strip of marshlands and sand beach three miles long, is purchased by the ODNR Division of Parks and Recreation. The purchase is made in collaboration with the ODNR Division of Wildlife, which purchases some marshlands behind the beach for the purpose of developing a public duck hunting area. A segment of the beach is opened for swimming in 1955. Today this area includes Crane Creek Wildlife Area, comprised of 79 acres of beach and marshlands, and the adjoining the 2,600-acre Magee Marsh Wildlife Area and the 4,683-acre Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge.
1953 - The Inland Seas Maritime Museum of the Great Lakes Historical Society is established in Vermilion.
1953 - Headlands Beach State Park opens under the original name Painesville Beach State Park on land just west of Fairport Harbor's Grand River.
1955 - Ohio begins requiring permits for the construction of shore erosion, wave and flood control structures along Ohio's coast as one of many early efforts to protect and manage Lake Erie. The permitting function is administered by ODNR's Division of Shore Erosion.
1955 -The (James W. Shocknessey) Ohio Turnpike opens. This east-west oriented toll road, which precedes the modern Interstate freeway network, travels through northern Ohio. The majority of the Ohio Turnpike travels within the Lake Erie watershed. Today, the portion between Cleveland and Toledo is the busiest Interstate freeway segment in the state.
1959 - In Fairport Harbor, the Morton Salt mine is drilled from the upland 2000-feet down to below Lake Erie. It is claimed to be the country's deepest and most modern salt mine at that time.
1961- The International Salt Company establishes the salt mine extending beneath Lake Erie from its opening on the Whiskey Island peninsula in Cleveland. Today the mine is owned by Cargill, Inc.
1964 - The formation of Geneva State Park begins with the purchase of Chestnut Grove. Acquisitions continue through 1972. The last parcels added are the cottage and campground areas.
1961 - The International Salt Company begins to mine rock salt from below the bed of Lake Erie in Cleveland. Today, two salt mines operate 2,000 feet under Lake Erie at Cleveland and Fairport Harbor producing millions of tons of salt annually.
1969 - The Cuyahoga River in Cleveland catches fire, sparking the nation’s attention, criticism and concern for environmental restoration of the nation’s waterways. Previous fires on the river in 1949, 1951, 1952 and 1961, et al occurred under the national media radar. The 1969 event results in the formation of various pollution control initiatives and is ultimately an agent prompting the Clean Water Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the formation of federal and state Environmental Protection Agencies.
(See Also: U.S. EPA Cuyahoga River Area of Concern | Ohio EPA Cuyahoga River Remidal Action Plan | Local Cuyahoa River Community Planning Organization RAP )
- The Coastal Zone Management Act
is federally approved. The Act’s goals are “(1) to preserve, protect, develop, and where possible, to restore or enhance, the resources of the nation's coastal zone for this and succeeding generations; and (2) to encourage and assist states to exercise effectively their responsibilities in the coastal zone through the development and implementation of management programs to achieve wise use of the land and water resources of the coastal zone, giving full consideration to ecological, cultural, historic, and esthetic values as well as the needs for compatible economic development” at the state level.
- The U.S. and Canada sign the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
in a bi-national effort to control pollution and clean up waste waters from industries and communities.
- Ohio Governor James Rhodes, by executive order, places the responsibility for developing a coastal management program with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources
from the federal Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management help ODNR in this effort. ODNR's Shoreland Management Unit leads the effort.
- Maumee Bay
officially becomes a state park.
- Ohio is hit with the worst observed winter storm in state history. Hailed as the “Great Blizzard of 1978
,” the storm brings devastating 70 mph winds, creates 20-foot high snow drifts, causes record low barometric pressures and near zero temperatures. According to the crew of a stranded ore carrier locked in the Lake Erie ice near Sandusky, the winds were sustained at 85 mph with gusts up to 111 mph. The state’s entire transportation network is forced to close, including all railroads, major airports and, for the first time, the Ohio Turnpike. The blizzard claims a reported 48 lives. (See also: Severe Weather in Ohio
– The U.S. and Canada renew the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
, in which they added a commitment to work together to rid the Great Lakes of "persistent toxic substances" which remain in the environment for a long time and can poison food sources for animals and people.
- Ohio purchases Sheldon Marsh
in Erie County for a State Nature Preserve. The site, which includes one of Ohio’s last remaining barrier beaches, was originally purchased in 1954 by Dean E. Sheldon Sr. Today the 465-acre site attracts more than 300 bird species.
- Old Woman Creek
near Huron (Erie County) is designated as the 7th National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR)
in the United States and the only NERR in the Great Lakes watershed. One of the few remaining freshwater type estuaries on Lake Erie, the state nature preserve near the southernmost point on the Great Lakes is excellent for viewing American water lotus beds and bald eagles.
- Ohio sport fishermen
log more than 13-million hours fishing Lake Erie. More fish, approximately 25 million, are caught from Lake Erie annually for human consumption than all four other Great Lakes combined.
- A 5.0 magnitude earthquake rattles Lake County. The quake’s epicenter was mere miles from the Perry nuclear power plant in Lake County. Subsequently, numerous scientific studies follow. (See: Ohio Seismic Network)
- The first observances of the zebra mussel
in the Western Basin are noted. Zebra mussels are an invasive species native to freshwater rivers and lakes of Eastern Europe and western Asia.
-The Ohio General Assembly unanimously approves the Ohio Coastal Management Law
which allows the State to apply for federal approval of a coastal management program. ODNR is given the responsibility of administering Submerged Land Leases.
– ODNR is tasked with administering Submerged Land Leases
. This program was previously administered by the Ohio Department of Administrative Services.
- The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum
in Cleveland opens to the public. Designed by world-renowned architect I.M. Pei, the uniquely configured building stands at the water’s edge and protrudes into the city’s North Coast Harbor.
- Around 15,000 tons of contaminant-free rubble from the demolished Cleveland Municipal Stadium, former home of the Cleveland Browns and Cleveland Indians, is used to construct three artificial reefs
offshore of Lakewood and Cleveland. The reefs attract 20- to 60-times more fish than non-reef areas.
- The Ohio Coastal Management Program
is given federal approval by the U.S. Department of Commerce through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. During the 25-year process to gain federal approval, ODNR listened intently to the concerns and suggestions of Ohio residents and professional experts. Approval of the program brings more than $2 million dollars to the state annually for its implementation.
- Ohio's Coastal Management Assistance Grant
program, administered by the ODNR Division of Real Estate and Land Management, issues its first request for grant proposals.
- Recognized for shaping the nation’s environmental, economic and cultural heritage, the Cuyahoga River is federally designated as one of 14 American Heritage Rivers
. Other rivers to receive this designation include the Connecticut, Hudson, Potomac, Rio Grande and portions of the Mississippi.
– The Coastal Erosion Area Permit
program became effective on June 1. The permit program’s objective is promote wise land use by reducing the risk of damage to or loss of property, possessions, infrastructure and life due to coastal erosion.
– The Ohio Lake Erie Commission
unveils the state’s first Lake Erie Protection and Restoration Plan
- A portion of Middle Bass Island
becomes Ohio’s 74th state park after ODNR purchases 124 acres on the island. The park includes undeveloped natural areas featuring wetlands, woodlands, glacial grooves and nearly a mile of Lake Erie shore, along with the shell of the Lonz Winery and the marina complex.
- In Ashtabula County
, a sequence of about 40 shallow earthquakes
dating back to 1987 is topped-off by a 4.5 magnitude quake. No prior earthquakes have ever been recorded in the county.
- Ohio Governor Bob Taft announces the state's Lake Erie Protection and Restoration Plan
- The Ohio Coastal Management Program
announces more than $2 million in Great Lakes Coastal Restoration Grants
to local governments. This funding is part of more than $30 million in federal grants to Great Lakes states.
- Ohio purchases 10 acres adjacent to the Marblehead Lighthouse State Park
with a $2 million Great Lakes Coastal Restoration Grant. The original grounds of the park became Ohio’s 73rd state park in October 1998. It is one of the state’s most visited parks.
- ODNR creates the Office of Coastal Management
to administer the federally approved Ohio Coastal Management Program. ODNR locates the new office in Sandusky to be able to better serve coastal constituents. The Office’s creation also marks the first time in Ohio’s history that the coastal authorizations for Shore Structure Permits and Submerged Land Leases are administrated by the same office.
- Forty million Americans throughout the eastern seaboard and Great Lakes Region as well as 10 million Canadians lose power
in the largest North American blackout in history. About 2.9 million people in the greater Cleveland metropolitan area and 310,000 in Toledo are affected. Financially, combined estimated losses total $6 billion.
-The Geneva State Park Lodge and Conference Center
opens in Geneva-on-the-Lake.
- In April, Ohio finalizes the purchase of 589 acres of the 677-acre (87 percent) North Bass Island
for $17.4 million in state and federal funds. ODNR divisions of Wildlife, Parks and Recreation and Natural Areas and Preserves now jointly manage the property for low-impact recreation, including hunting, fishing, hiking, primitive camping, birding and nature study. Grape production, a key part of the island’s heritage since the mid-1800s, continues on approximately 85 acres remaining under lease to Sandusky-based Firelands Vineyards.
- Ohio's first Lake Erie Coastal Atlas
is produced by staff at the ODNR Office of Coastal Management with assistance from many partner agencies.
- The Lake Erie Coastal Trail
is dedicated in the city of Ashtabula as Ohio’s 21st Scenic Byway
. The more than 200-mile byway links Conneaut and Toledo, with scenic destinations such as coastal state parks and preserves, lighthouses, bridges, the Oak Openings, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Great Lakes Science Center, President Garfield’s Home, Cedar Point and Fort Meigs.
- A 21-mile stretch of the Conneaut Creek
in Ashtabula County is designated a State Wild and Scenic River.
- The Ohio Coastal Atlas Second Edition
edition are publically released.
- In March, The Ohio Coastal Atlas Project receives the 2008 National Association of Environmental Professionals (NAEP) Environmental Education Award
for Education Excellence. In June, the American Library Association's Government Documents Round Table (GODORT) announces that the Ohio Coastal Atlas Project has been awarded a Notable Government Document 2007 Award in the State/Local category.
– Ohio becomes the sixth state to sign the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact
. (Am. HB 416). By late July, all Great Lakes states have approved the Compact which is ratified by Congress in late September. (See: ODNR's Great Lakes Compact
- October 3, President Bush signs the Great Lakes Compact
, the final step in a nearly decade-long quest to strengthen legal protections against diverting water from the Great Lakes, their connecting channels and the St. Lawrence River.
- August 1, Distribution begins for the printed Ohio's Lake Erie Public Access Guidebook
which mirrors the website that was launched at the beginning of summer. The publication created by ODNR staff at the Office of Coastal Management and Office of Communications includes Ohio's 164 public access sites on Lake Erie.
: Development continues on the Lake Erie Shore Erosion Management Plan
with recommendations for the first three regions shared during public meetings throughout the year.
- June/July: The Ohio Coastal Design Manual
website is launched and distribution of the companion printed manual begins. The Office of Coastal Management developed the manual to promote better projects along the coast that balance the use of Lake Erie as a shared natural resource along with the property owners’ need for lakefront erosion protection and the benefit of access to the lake.
- June/July: The Lake Erie Literacy Principles and Concepts are finalized and a brochure is printed. A project team consisting of staff from the Ohio Lake Erie Commission, the Ohio Department of Natural Resources (ODNR) Office of Coastal Management, ODNR Division of Wildlife - Old Woman Creek National Estuarine Research Reserve, and the Ohio Sea Grant College Program developed the Lake Erie Literacy Principles and Concepts by adapting Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles and Fundamental Concepts to Lake Erie. www.ohiodnr.com/lakeerieliteracy
- June 4 - Governor John Kasich signs House Bill 473 to bring Ohio into compliance with the 2005 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact. The compact is an agreement signed by Ohio and seven other states and two Canadian provinces and ratified by Congress to protect the Great Lakes from excessive water use inside the basin and prohibit withdrawals outside the basin. Businesses that want to make withdrawals exceeding 2.5 million gallons a day from Lake Erie, 1 million gallons a day from rivers and streams feeding the lake and 100,000 gallons a day from streams defined as "high-quality" will have to obtain permits. HB 473 amends sections 1501.32, 1501.33, 1521.04, 1522.03, and 1522.05 of the Ohio Revised Code, enacts sections 1522.10, 1522.101, 1522.11 to 1522.13, 1522.131, and 1522.14 to 1522.21, and repeals section 1522.07
Historical societies in Ohio’s coastal counties
Ohio Historical Society
Ohio History Central
Ohio Historical Markers by County:
Historic Perrysburg (Lucas County)
Black River Historical Society (Lorain County)
Lakewood Historical Society (Cuyahoga County)
Lake Erie's Yesterdays (OhioLINK Digital Media Center) - A collection of historic photographs from documenting the local history of the Erie Islands and Lake Erie's western basin.